Greenbone’s vulnerability management finds applications with Log4j vulnerabilities in systems that definitely need to be patched or otherwise protected. Depending on the type of systems and vulnerability, these can be found better or worse. Detection is also constantly improving and being updated. New breaches are found. Therefore, there may always be more systems with Log4Shell vulnerabilities in the network. For this reason, it is worthwhile to regularly update and scan all systems. The Greenbone vulnerability management offers appropriate automation functions for this purpose. But how are vulnerabilities found, and where can they be hidden? Why are vulnerabilities not always directly detectable? The following article will give you a brief insight into how scanning for vulnerabilities like Log4Shell works.

A vulnerability scanner makes specific queries to systems and services and can read from the responses what kind of systems and services they are, but also what products are behind them. This also includes information such as their versions or even settings and other properties. In many cases, this makes it possible to determine whether a vulnerability exists and whether it has already been eliminated. In practice, these are sometimes highly complicated and nested queries, but above all they are also very, very many. Entire networks are scanned for thousands of different vulnerabilities.

The Log4j vulnerability “Log4Shell” (CVE-2021-44228) is a flawed program library used in many web services products. Therefore, partly it is directly visible through a vulnerability scan, but partly it is hidden behind other elements. That is why there is not only one vulnerability test for Log4j, but several. More are added all the time because the manufacturers of the respective products share relevant information and also provide updates to close the gaps. The list of systems affected by Log4Shell is constantly updated at

Some of the vulnerability tests require an authenticated scan. This means that the scanner must first log into a system and then detect the vulnerability in the system. An authenticated scan can provide more details about vulnerabilities on the scanned system.

The vulnerability tests that are suitable to find the Log4j vulnerability are provided collectively in a scan configuration. Greenbone keeps this “Log4j” scan configuration continuously up-to-date in order to keep adding new tests. As a result, a scan may report a Log4j vulnerability tomorrow that was not found today. It is therefore advisable to configure the Log4j scan to run automatically on a regular basis. This is especially important in the next weeks, when many software vendors are gathering more findings. Greenbone continuously integrates these findings into the tests and the scan configuration.

scanning for vulnerabilities like Log4Shell
Does a Vulnerability Have to Be Exploited to Find It?

Exploiting a vulnerability to find it is not advisable. And fortunately, it is not necessary either. Doing so could cause the very damage that should be avoided at all costs. Moreover, a product vendor that provides vulnerability exploitation as a feature would potentially strongly encourage misuse of that feature, which raises further – not only legal – issues. Therefore, Greenbone’s vulnerability management does not include such features.

Exploitation of the Log4j vulnerability as attackers would do is also not required to prove the existence of the vulnerability. Greenbone has developed several tests to prove Log4Shell, each of which looks at systems in different depths. Several tests can detect the Log4j vulnerability with 100 % certainty, most with 80 % to 97 % certainty. Some tests also collect indicators of 30 % where they do not get close enough to the vulnerability. Each test at Greenbone makes a statement about detection certainty, which is stated as “Quality of Detection.”

What Is the Role of Software Product Vendors?

Manufacturers of a wide variety of products can use Log4j libraries, which are now vulnerable with it. Product manufacturers have included Log4j in different ways. Usually, a deep scan can find Log4j without the vendor’s help. However, most manufacturers also support the process through public vulnerability reports. These can then be used to write vulnerability tests that can provide a reliable vulnerability statement even with less deep scans. The reason for this is that the scans can use simpler configurations through vendor information. In addition, they also run faster.

In principle, however, a vulnerability scanner can also check and find vulnerabilities without the manufacturer publishing a vulnerability report.


Vulnerability management is an indispensable part of IT security. It can find risks and provides valuable information on how to fix them. However, no single measure provides 100 % security, not even vulnerability management. To make a system secure, many elements are used, which in their entirety should provide the best possible security.

This is comparable to a vehicle, where the passenger compartment, seat belts, airbags, brake support, assistance systems and much more increase safety, but can never guarantee it. Vulnerability management makes risks controllable.

Update from 2021-12-20: information about additional vulnerabilities found for Log4j can be found here.

Update from 2021-12-20: vulnerability tests for products running on Microsoft Windows are now available.

Note: The tests check the existence of Log4j and its version. A separate vulnerability test may not be available for each affected application, but all Log4j files are found and reported (/path-to-log4j-file/).

The issued installation paths must be checked and, if necessary, the vendor must be contacted. It must be checked whether updates are already available for the respective application and whether the find is relevant.

PowerShell execution privileges on a target system are required for the account used in an authenticated scan. Some vulnerability tests execute PowerShell commands to increase the accuracy of the results, which require permissions for the duration of a scan.

Update from 2021-12-15: an additional attack vector was identified and reported in CVE-2021-45046. We are working on vulnerability tests for this vector, although our tests are working for this additional case too. We recommend to update to the latest Log4j version. The attack is more complicated and a protection requires a different configuration. But as this is a very new vector, we advise to better be save than sorry. For more information see

This article collects answers to the most frequently asked questions regarding Greenbone’s Log4j vulnerability test coverage.

What Is this Vulnerability About?

The “Log4Shell” vulnerability affects a software library responsible for recording events (so called “logging”) in software written in the Java programming language. A malicious attacker can use this vulnerability to execute code on the affected systems.

Since this vulnerability can be exploited through the Internet and without any authentication, this can be very critical for affected systems and companies. As the software is also included in a lot of software and services accessible through the Internet, many companies and services are likely to be affected.

More information about this vulnerability can be found here:

Are any Greenbone Products and Services Affected?

We checked the status of potentially affected systems with the highest priority. None of our products or internally and externally provided services are affected.

Can Greenbone Products Detect this Vulnerability?

Yes, detection routines have been integrated into the Greenbone Community Feed and into the Greenbone Enterprise Feed starting with feed version 202112130808. This means that both our appliances and our cloud product are able to detect this vulnerability.

While detection routines are available, the complex nature of this vulnerability means that a detection cannot be guaranteed to find every single affected system or products. This especially applies to unauthenticated “remote” checks, for the following reasons:

  • The product or service may only be vulnerable under very specific circumstances. As the Log4j library is very complex and highly configurable and it is used differently in many products, it is not possible to find all vulnerable instances through a remote check.
  • Security configurations in the customer’s network may prevent a successful verification of the vulnerability.
  • Products and services may also be affected indirectly.

A custom scan configuration for directly detecting this vulnerability as quickly as possible is also available through both feeds. Please note that the current scan configuration only contains active checks (remote and local). Package-version checks are not included to keep the scan configuration, and thus the scan time, minimal.

Is the Detection Included in the Greenbone Community Feed?

Yes. A basic detection for the vulnerability is included in both feeds. Additional vulnerability tests for potentially affected enterprise products are available through the Greenbone Enterprise Feed.

Which Detection Is Included in Which Feed?

Greenbone Enterprise Feed

We are continuously deploying vulnerability tests into the Greenbone Enterprise Feed, so the following list may be incomplete, but reports the status of 12:00 p.m.

Important: To get the most current information regarding your installation, you can search for ~CVE-2021-44228 in the “CVE” and “NVTs” section of the “SecInfo” menu on the web interface of your installation.

  • Apache Log4j 2.0.x < 2.15.0 RCE Vulnerability (Log4Shell)
  • Apache Log4j Detection (Linux/Unix SSH Login)
  • Apache Log4j 2.0.x < 2.15.0 RCE Vulnerability (HTTP, Log4Shell) – Active Check
  • Apache Struts 2.5.x Log4j RCE Vulnerability (Log4Shell)
  • Apache Druid < 0.22.1 Multiple Vulnerabilities (Log4Shell)
  • Apache Flink < 1.13.4, 1.14.x < 1.14.1 Log4j RCE Vulnerability (Log4Shell)
  • Apache Log4j 2.0.x < 2.15.0 RCE Vulnerability (TCP, Log4Shell) – Active Check
  • Apache Log4j 2.0.x < 2.15.0 RCE Vulnerability (UDP, Log4Shell) – Active Check
  • Apache Log4j 2.0.x < 2.15.0 RCE Vulnerability (SIP, Log4Shell) – Active Check
  • Apache Solr 7.x, 8.x Log4j RCE Vulnerability (Log4Shell) – Version Check
  • Debian: Security Advisory for apache-log4j2 (DSA-5020-1)
  • Debian LTS: Security Advisory for apache-log4j2 (DLA-2842-1)
  • Elastic Logstash Log4j RCE Vulnerability (Log4Shell)
  • Openfire < 4.6.5 Log4j RCE Vulnerability (Log4Shell)
  • VMware vCenter Server 6.5, 6.7, 7.0 Log4j RCE Vulnerability (VMSA-2021-0028, Log4Shell) – Version Check
  • VMware Workspace ONE Access Log4j RCE Vulnerability (VMSA-2021-0028, Log4Shell)
  • VMware vRealize Operations Log4j RCE Vulnerability (VMSA-2021-0028, Log4Shell)
  • VMware vRealize Log Insight Log4j RCE Vulnerability (VMSA-2021-0028, Log4Shell)
  • VMware vRealize Automation Log4j RCE Vulnerability (VMSA-2021-0028, Log4Shell)
  • VMware vRealize Orchestrator Log4j RCE Vulnerability (VMSA-2021-0028, Log4Shell)
  • VMware vCenter Server 6.5, 6.7, 7.0 Log4j RCE Vulnerability (VMSA-2021-0028, Log4Shell) – Active Check
  • ArcGIS Server <= 10.7.1 Log4j RCE Vulnerability (Log4Shell)
  • Metabase < 0.41.4 Log4j RCE Vulnerability (Log4Shell)
  • Splunk 8.1.x, 8.2.x Log4j RCE Vulnerability (Log4Shell)
  • Wowza Streaming Engine <= 4.8.16 Log4j RCE Vulnerability (Log4Shell)
  • SonicWall Email Security 10.x Log4j RCE Vulnerability (SNWLID-2021-0032, Log4Shell)
  • IBM WebSphere Application Server Log4j RCE Vulnerability (6525706, Log4Shell)
Greenbone Community Feed

We are continuously deploying vulnerability tests into the Greenbone Community Feed, so the following list may be incomplete, but reports the status of 12:00 p.m.

Important: To get the most current information regarding your installation, you can search for ~CVE-2021-44228 in the “CVE” and “NVTs” section of the “SecInfo” menu on the web interface of your installation.

  • Apache Log4j 2.0.x < 2.15.0 RCE Vulnerability (Log4Shell)
  • Consolidation of Apache Log4j detections
  • Apache Log4j Detection (Linux/Unix SSH Login)
  • Apache Log4j 2.0.x < 2.15.0 RCE Vulnerability (HTTP, Log4Shell) – Active Check
  • Debian: Security Advisory for apache-log4j2 (DSA-5020-1)
  • Elastic Logstash Log4j RCE Vulnerability (Log4Shell)
  • Debian LTS: Security Advisory for apache-log4j2 (DLA-2842-1)
  • Openfire < 4.6.5 Log4j RCE Vulnerability (Log4Shell)
  • Apache Log4j 2.0.x < 2.15.0 RCE Vulnerability (TCP, Log4Shell) – Active Check
  • Apache Log4j 2.0.x < 2.15.0 RCE Vulnerability (UDP, Log4Shell) – Active Check
  • Apache Log4j 2.0.x < 2.15.0 RCE Vulnerability (SIP, Log4Shell) – Active Check

About Authenticated/Unauthenticated Tests

Some version checks require authentication, others do not. Additionally, some could have both.

The respective information is available through the links returned by the search for ~CVE-2021-44228 in the “CVE” and “NVTs” section of the “SecInfo” menu on the web interface of your installation.

The “Quality of Detection” contains information on the detection method. A value of “package (97 %)” indicates an authenticated check, other values like “remote_banner (80 %)” happen unauthenticated.

For more technical information about this see

About Active Tests/Test Checking Version, QoD

You can see if it is an active check based on the QoD and the “Detection Method” on the web interface when viewing the vulnerability test details.

Note: Only systems which are actually logging input which can be modified by an attacker (e.g., specific HTTP request headers, URLs, …) are vulnerable.

The detection method, Quality of Detection, mitigation and lots of further details are available through the links returned by the search for ~CVE-2021-44228 in the “CVE” and “NVTs” section of the “SecInfo” menu on the web interface of your installation.

Scanning for Nodes on Separate VRFs & VLANs

  • Out-of-band (OOB) scanning is currently not possible. Please scan in each segment.
  • We think of such an Out-of-band (OOB) communication/external interaction possibility to be integrated in the future.

Update from 2021-12-20: information about additional vulnerabilities found for Log4j can be found here.

Update from 2021-12-15: the most important FAQ about the Log4j vulnerability detection with Greenbone can be found here.

A critical vulnerability (Log4Shell, CVE-2021-44228) in the widely used Java library Log4j has been discovered. Greenbone has integrated local security checks and active checks via HTTP in their feeds which will help users with the Log4j vulnerability detection to find out if and which of their systems may be affected. Additionally, a special scan configuration which checks precisely for this vulnerability is available for quick results via the feeds.

log4j detection in Greenbone feeds

The vulnerability leads to an extremely critical threat situation, according to the Federal Office for Information Security (BSI). For this reason, the BSI has released a warning of the highest level on the issue. The vulnerability is trivially exploitable, and may allow a complete takeover of the affected systems.

It is a critical risk since attackers can insert code snippets via various ways into the log4j module (e.g., via a regular chat message) and then load code for execution from any LDAP server (which may be under your control).

Customers running Log4j are highly recommend to update their solutions to Log4j version 2.15.0 (or later) to mitigate this flaw, but should be aware of the following:

  • The update currently is “only” restricting access to external LDAP servers by default (will only allow localhost/ and sets the default of the system property log4j2.formatMsgNoLookups to true.
  • While this mitigates the risk, there may still be applications running Log4j version 2.15.0 that have both (or one) of the above settings incorrect or misconfigured so that the attack vector still exists.

Regarding our solution, customers should be also aware of the following:

  • For a successful detection of this risk, the scanner host needs to be reachable by the target host via TCP.
  • There may be also a flaw in a software which is only gathering and logging the syslog from other remote systems for example, but does not accept logs itself. Such systems could still be attacked by log pollution.
  • It is very important to monitor updates of affected products.
  • In addition, all systems that were vulnerable should be examined for compromise.

The employees of Greenbone are currently developing a completely new scanner for version comparisons. The new vulnerability scanner “Notus” should significantly accelerate the comparison of software versions, CVEs and patches in the future.

Scanner architecture of the new vulnerability scanner

A large part of modern vulnerability management consists of comparing software versions. If you want to find out whether your server is immune to a vulnerability, you need to know which version of a particular software is running on that machine. For example, version 1 may be affected by a vulnerability that is already fixed in version 2. Whether vulnerability scanners like the new vulnerability scanner “Notus” issue a warning depends, among other things, heavily on the result of these comparisons.

Björn Ricks, Unit Lead Services & Platforms at Greenbone explains, “Such tasks alone accounted for more than a third of a scanner’s work, and the scanner we have optimized specifically for version comparisons is designed to speed this up significantly.”

Performance Shortcomings of Classic Scanners

At the beginning of the work of a classic scanner is an advisory with a gap found by experts. Greenbone employees then search for matching (affected) software versions and those that have already corrected the error. This information must now be made available to the scanner.

“It then rattles off the relevant servers and records software running there. For the actual scan, it essentially only gets the info about affected and fixed packages,” Ricks explains. “With the OpenVAS scanner and its predecessors, we usually had to start a separate process per version check, meaning a separate manually created script. Generating these scripts automatically is costly.”

JSON Data Helps Speed up the Scanner

The new scanner, on the other hand, only loads the data it needs from files in JSON format, an easy-to-read plain-text standard. “This means the logic for the tests is no longer in the scripts. This has many advantages: fewer processes, less overhead, less memory required.” Ricks believes the approach is “significantly more efficient.”

Elmar Geese, COO of Greenbone Networks explains, “Our new Notus scanner will be a milestone for our users, it will significantly improve performance. Our well-known high detection quality as well as performance are key goals of our product strategy, and the new scanner supports this in an optimal way.”

The “Notus” project consists of two parts: a “Notus” generator, which creates the JSON files containing information about vulnerable RPM/Debian packages, and the “Notus” scanner, which loads these JSON files and interprets the information from them. Greenbone plans to complete the new vulnerability scanner “Notus” in the next few months.

About Greenbone and OpenVAS

When the development team of the vulnerability scanner Nessus decided to stop working under open source licenses and switch to a proprietary business model in 2005, several forks of Nessus were created. Only one of them is still active: the Open Vulnerability Assessment System (OpenVAS).

The founding of Greenbone in 2008 aimed to drive the development of OpenVAS and provide users with professional vulnerability scanning support. Greenbone started to lead the further development of OpenVAS, added several software components and thus transformed OpenVAS into a comprehensive vulnerability management solution that still carries the values of free software. The first appliances hit the market in spring 2010.

With the help of Greenbone products, known vulnerabilities in an IT infrastructure can be detected and subsequently eliminated. Assessing the severity of a vulnerability is an essential tool for planning and prioritizing subsequent remediation actions. CVSS provides such an assessment according to a metrics system. Since 2021, Greenbone’s current solutions also support CVSS versions 3.0 and 3.1, and at the same time, Greenbone started to provide all vulnerability tests for which a respective rating is available with it. As of October 2021, this work is now complete and there is – as far as possible – full CVSSv3x coverage in the Greenbone feeds.

Helpful Severity Metrics

Every cyber attack needs a vulnerability to be successful. Most vulnerabilities, namely 999 out of 1,000, have already been known for more than a year and can therefore be proactively detected and eliminated. For detection, a Greenbone vulnerability scanner is used, which finds the known vulnerabilities in an IT infrastructure.

If vulnerabilities are discovered, they can subsequently be eliminated using a wide variety of measures. The most urgent vulnerabilities to be eliminated are those that pose a critical risk to the IT system. Prioritization is required for selecting the measures and the order.

The severity is an essential tool for prioritization. However, we will take a closer look at how vulnerabilities are assigned a severity level in the first place and how it is calculated.

How Severity Ratings Are Created

In the past, different organizations and security research teams discovered and reported vulnerabilities at the same time and named them with different names. This resulted in the same vulnerability being reported by, for example, multiple scanners under different names, making communication and comparison of results difficult.

To address this, MITRE founded the Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE) project. Each vulnerability was given a unique identifier as a central reference, consisting of the year of publication and a simple number. The CVE database is used to link vulnerability databases with other systems and to allow comparison of security tools and services.

CVEs thus do not contain any detailed, technical information or information regarding the risks, effects or elimination of a vulnerability. In some cases, the version in which the vulnerability was removed is stored.

Further information about a vulnerability can be found in the National Vulnerability Database (NVD). The NVD – a U.S. government vulnerability management data repository – supplements CVEs with information regarding remediation, potential impact, affected products, and also the severity of a vulnerability.

How is the Severity of a Vulnerability Calculated?

The Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) was developed to enable the assessment of vulnerabilities. CVSS is an industry standard for describing the severity of security risks in IT systems. It was developed by the CVSS Special Interest Group (CVSS-SIG) of the Forum of Incident Response and Security Teams (FIRST). The latest CVSS version is 3.1.

The CVSS score evaluates vulnerabilities according to various criteria, so-called “metrics”: base-score metrics, temporal-score metrics and environmental-score metrics.

  • Base-score metrics: base-score metrics represent the basic characteristics of a vulnerability that are independent of time and the IT environment: how well can the vulnerability be exploited and what is the impact?
  • Temporal-score metrics: temporal-score metrics represent characteristics that can change over time but are the same in different IT environments. For example, the deployment of a patch by the deploying organization would lower the score.
  • Environmental-score metrics: environmental-score metrics represent the characteristics that apply to a specific IT environment. Relevant here are how well the affected organization can intercept successful attacks or what status a particular vulnerable system has within the IT infrastructure.

Since, in general, only the base score metrics are meaningful and can be determined permanently, only these are usually published and used.

CVSSv3.0/v3.1 Support Since GOS 21.04

Since GOS 21.04, which was released in April 2021, versions 3.0 and 3.1 of CVSS are also supported. Although some CVEs – and thus also the associated vulnerability tests – still contain version 2 CVSS data, this mainly affects older CVEs from the year 2015 and earlier, for which no CVSSv3.0/v3.1 score is yet stored in the NVD.

Let’s look at the biggest changes that versions 3.0 and 3.1 include.

Compared to CVSS version 2.0, version 3.0 retains the main groups of metrics – base, temporal, and environmental – but adds new criteria. For example, the metrics “Scope (S)”, which indicates whether a vulnerability can also affect other components of an IT network, and “User Interaction (UI)”.

Some existing criteria have also been replaced by newer ones: “Authentication (Au)” has become “Privileges Required (PR)”. It is no longer measured how often attackers have to authenticate themselves to a system, but what level of access is required for a successful attack.

In addition, the severity levels were subdivided more finely. In version 2.0, the values from 0 to 10 were divided into three severity levels: “Low” (0.0 – 3.9), “Medium” (4.9 – 6.9) and “High” (7.0 – 10.0). Since version 3.0, there are five levels: “None” (0.0), “Low” (0.1 – 3.9), “Medium” (4.0 – 6.9), “High” (7.0 – 8.9) and “Critical” (9.0 – 10.0).

CVSS version 3.1 did not bring any changes to the metrics or the calculation formulas. Instead, the focus was on emphasizing that CVSS measures the severity of a vulnerability rather than the risk it poses. A common mistake was to view the CVSS score as the sole characteristic of a vulnerability’s risk, rather than performing a fully comprehensive risk assessment.

In the course of this, the definitions of the metrics were formulated more clearly and the glossary was expanded.

Full CVSSv3.0/v3.1 Coverage in the Feed

With CVSSv3.0/v3.1 support in April 2021, Greenbone began updating all vulnerability tests assigned a CVSSv3.0/v3.1 score in the NVD to include a CVSSv3.0/v3.1 score.

This was done in daily stages of 500 – 600 vulnerability tests. The update and conversion were thoroughly reviewed and tested. Since October 2021, this work has now been completed. Thus, there is – as far as possible – full CVSSv3x coverage in the Greenbone feeds.

Osnabrück, March 13, 2020 – Vulnerability management specialist, Greenbone Networks, today announced it has appointed Elmar Geese to the newly created role of Chief Operating Officer (COO). Geese, who joins the company’s senior management team, will play a key role in Greenbone’s future growth, overseeing the company’s expanding operations.

Geese will take responsibility for Greenbone’s overall corporate strategy as well as process optimisation within the company. He will also focus on adding value to Greenbone’s range of products by, for example, making its vulnerability management solution available as a managed service, so it is more accessible to companies that do not have the in-house capabilities or resources to deploy and manage their own hardware.

“With its solutions for intelligent vulnerability management, Greenbone has the potential to develop from a European market leader to a global player,” said Geese. “The security of information systems is fundamental for companies and our modern society, demonstrated by the many security incidents we now witness every day. Greenbone plays a decisive role in making our world safer and I look forward to taking a major part in this.”

Geese has over three decades of experience within the IT sector, working as founder, manager and consultant. Most recently, he was CIO at the Berlin health start-up machtfit, where he was responsible for the company’s SaaS platform for occupational health management. As head of product development and operations, he also contributed to the long-term acquisition of customers such as Bayer AG, Deutsche Bahn, Lufthansa, Edeka and Lanxess.

“We are thrilled to welcome Elmar onto the Greenbone team,” said Jan-Oliver Wagner, Greenbone founder and CEO. “As we continue to grow, it’s essential that we have someone to support us at management level with a capable head for business and a strong entrepreneurial background. Elmar offers just that, and we are very much looking forward to working with him and are confident that with him on board, we will easily master the tasks that accompany rapid company growth.”